Domain name not resolving after migration despite DNS checking out

I just tried to migrate to a fresh DigitalOcean VPS (in a data center closer to where I live, and colocated with my WordPress VPS), and everything on the Status Checks page is green (except DNSSEC), but the domain name isn’t properly resolving, except, strangely, for the static server (which I don’t use). I can access the admin interface (which I can log into) via the IP address, and I can access the login page for RoundCube (which gives me an “Invalid request!” error when I try to log in). IMAP is timing out, as well.

Yes, I have repeated the install script; yes, I have rebooted my box; and, yes, I have purged the DNS cache for my domain at https://1.1.1.1/purge-cache/.

Any thoughts on why this might be happening? My server’s IP address is https://104.131.30.57, and the domain name that’s timing out (but not for static HTML) is https://box.elsiehupp.com.

I can let this sit for a few hours, but if I don’t have the new VPS up and running in the next day or so I’ll have to go back to the old one. Hoping I can fix this!

As I was suspicious would happen, it started working on its own after a few hours.

Yes, but it is not working correctly. Are you intending to host DNS for your domain through Digital Ocean, or through your MiaB server?

Regardless of your choice the records are incorrect:
image

Your NS entries being served should be one or the other, not both.